In Tennessee, an area of deficit in writing for RTI2 is defined as written expression. Written Expression involves basic writing skills (transcription) and generational skills (composition). Transcription involves difficulty producing letters, words, and spelling. Composition is difficulty with word and text fluency, sentence construction, genre- specific discourse structures, planning processes, and reviewing and revising processes.
Difficulty with: Hold/Use Pencil, Trace/ Copy, Letters Written, Words Written, Word Sequence, Spelling, Planning processes, Composition/reviewing and revising
Written Expression Interventions:
After looking at a student's writing sample, choose an area below to begin writing interventions. In general, it's best to start in one area with interventions, and when those are successful, slowly add other intervention areas as needed.
Composition/Organization of Writing
Before deciding on any interventions below, first compare the student's writing to his/her oral language. If they match (i.e. the student is writing the same way he talks) then consult your Speech/Language Pathologist for possible language interventions. It is very rare for a student to be able to write better than he speaks. If, however, his ability to compose thoughts, sentences, and stories orally is much better than his ability to write these thoughts and stories, then try one of the following interventions:
- Interactive Writing
- Color-Coding Strategy
- Paragraph Frames
- Sentence Expansion
- Sentence Combining
- Take a Good Look
- Web the Word
- Elkonin Boxes
- Building Words
- Compare and Contrast
Progress Monitoring Writing/Spelling
Progress monitoring for writing will be very specific to the intervention you've chosen. It's best to progress monitor the student's ability to apply the skill within the context of an actual writing task. Refer to Intervention Central for curriculum based measures for progress monitoring written expression. Progress monitor every other week.
Often a student who has difficulty with writing composition also may have difficulties with forming letters. If you feel this is the case, consult your OT for possible interventions.